These are (i) air cooled slag, (ii) granulated slag, and (iii) Expanded slag also known as foamed slag. Practically, there are no concrete, mortar or grout applications which preclude the use of an appropriate amount of ground granulated BF slag. Many of the expanded slags possess cementitious properties attributable to high glass content. It is also successfully used as an aggregate for concrete. Uses of BF slag which have been developed date back many centuries. Abstract Traditionally, iron ore has been reduced with coke in a blast furnace and the hot metal product of the blast furnace containing carbon, manganese, silicon, sulphur and phosphorous, was subsequently refined in a steelmaking furnace. The use of by-products from steel industry goes back to many centuries ago. The slag is being used either because it can provide equal performance at a lower cost, or better performance for similar cost. Currently there are many types of concrete that are developed and used in construction that include metallurgical slags both as a binding component and as fillers. This results in the ‘dusting’ or ‘falling’ of the slag, plainly reducing it to a powder. Pig iron is the metallic ore that contains 90% of iron. Molten slag diverted from the iron blast furnace is rapidly chilled, producing glassy granules that yield desired reactive cementitious characteristics when ground into cement fineness. Non ferrous slags make up only 12% of the total annual production Described below are the main types and uses of slag commercially available in Ferrous Slag products . Hence, it is lucky that the range of slag compositions associated with good iron production is all useful construction materials, although varying in physical properties. When the granulated slag is ground to the proper fineness, the chemical composition and glassy (non-crystalline) nature of vitrified slag is such that in combination with water, the vitrified slag reacts and forms cementitious hydration product. This page is about the Slag from IndustrialCraft 2. In the conventional application of the steelmaking slag in civil engineering, the elution of free-lime (CaO) from slag and the expansion of slag caused by hydration have been the major problems, which are yet to be solved. %PDF-1.3 %���� Granulated slag has, in the past, been used for the manufacture of cement, construction of highway bases and for soil conditioning34. Ferrous slag is currently underutilized. google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7057920448327527"; It appears in concrete, aggregate road materials, as ballast, and is sometimes used as a component of phosphate fertilizer. The limestone mixes with impurities in the iron to form slag. Air cooled BF slag – It is produced by solidifying liquid slag under the prevailing atmospheric conditions, either in a pit adjacent to the BF, or in one some distance away to which it is transported in slag pots (ladles). Due to poor strength it has very little use. Processed air cooled slag shows favourable mechanical properties for aggregate use including good abrasion resistance, good soundness characteristics, and high bearing strength. 0000002939 00000 n BF operator can only modify the slag properties to a limited extent by changing cooling conditions. In 350 BC Aristotle already stated When iron is purified by fire, there forms a stone known as iron slag. Due to very low carbon content its melting point is high and it cannot be used as casting alloy. layers. Minor elements include High internal friction values and particle interlock provide excellent stability when used without cements. Create your account. 0000006622 00000 n It is continuously charged with Fe oxide sources (ore, sinter, and pellet etc. Almost all the produced BF slag is being used in some application. The properties of slag greatly influence its use and thus had got varied applications. This slag is known as granulated BF slag. 0000061318 00000 n �,�������Y�Y�X5Y8��392,I�q�˿� TcDz��)V��!R�l3u�������:�++㔒T@�P�eN�kG15����9s�%&L�X�s�Lc! Additional mixing of blast-furnace slag with the clinker after firing is considered. 0000002072 00000 n The aggregate is highly resistant to weathering effects, and does not readily polish to produce slippery surfaces. Slag aggregates are obtained by crushing of smelter slag or by special treatment of fire-liquid slag melt (molten slag aggregates). It is wonderfully effective in drying out wounds and results in other benefits . The first industrial commercial use (around 1859) was the production of bricks using unground granulated BF slag. Since 1918, The NSA has promoted the use of Blast Furnace and Steel Furnace Slag. 0000000840 00000 n 0000058641 00000 n The leachates are not toxic in nature, occur only under poor drainage conditions, and are temporary or transient in existence. The physical properties of granulated slag are given in Tab 3. Steel slag has now gained much attention because of its new applications. Steel slag contains calcium, silicon, manganese, phosphate and iron. Sulphur has long been looked upon as an undesirable constituent of slag, mainly because of doubts that one reaction or another is possible or can cause a problem of some kind. In the production of iron, the blast furnace is charged with iron ore, fluxing agents, usually limestone and dolomite, and coke as fuel and the reducing agent. Using slag cements or ground granulated BF slag as a concrete addition result in several advantageous concrete properties. The major application is mainly in untreated in base courses, with smaller amounts used in bases stabilized with cement, asphalt, or lime-fly ash mixes. Both are periodically tapped from the furnace. Other aggregate applications included roofing, sewage plant filter media and drainage works. Dependent upon the cooling methods employed, any of three distinctly different types of product can be made from the liquid BF slag (Fig 1). With air the typical colour vanishes within a short time. Like other industrial byproducts, slag actually has many uses, and rarely goes to waste. Air-cooled iron slag and steel slag are used primarily as aggregates in concrete (air-cooled iron slag only); asphaltic paving, fill, and road bases; both slag types also can be used as a feed for cement kilns. In slags with normal ranges of Fe contents, it is not a problem. Although slag is a waste product of the iron and steel industry, it can be turned into 'slag cement' and used to make roads. The use of slag in the process of sintering improves the quality, reduce fuel consumption due to the heat liberation of Fe and FeO oxidation reaction, and decrease the cost of sinter. The most common use is as an aggregate in the manufacture of asphalt. Depending on different chemistry, granulation methods and granulation parameters the morphology of granulated slag particles can vary from a dense structure without porosity to a very porous friable form. 0000040122 00000 n Slag, by-product formed in smelting, welding, and other metallurgical and combustion processes from impurities in the metals or ores being treated. slag (GGBFS). The density of liquid slag at around 1450 deg C can vary in a range of 2.68 tons/cum to 2.84 tons/cum. It cannot be heat treated for changing its physical properties. Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. It is therefore not surprising that many attempts have been made to re-use iron and steelmaking slags. The coarse sizes can have bulk densities as much as 20 % lower than natural aggregates with the same gradation, while the fine material (passing a sieve of 4.75 mm size) is nearly equal to natural sand in density. Almost all GGBFS is used as a partial substitute for portland cement in concrete mixes or in blended cements. Slag: worker uses skimmer to block molten metal from being poured into mold Old San Juan Blue Cobblestone Street. Using ground granulated BF slag can locally cause a blue-green coloration of the fresh demoulded surface of hardened concrete. Modern uses. For other uses, see Slag. Variations in the amount of water and the process used control the cooling rate, and can result in product variations from highly crystalline material resembling very vesicular air cooled slag to glassy material closely similar to granulated slag. The S in the air cooled slag generally appears as sulphides of Ca, Fe, and Mn. In its elemental and oxide forms it find larger applications in life. Once the slag has been cooled and ground to a usable fineness it is stored and shipped to suppliers throughout the united states. With our advanced analytical techniques and equipment Iron is a common metal known to man since history. All Rights Reserved © 2019, Design & Developed By: Star Web Maker. Piles of steel slag, a solid waste generated from the iron and steel industry, could be seen due to no utility found for the past century. As the volume of the charge is reduced, more is continually added at the top of the furnace. Through the use of slag in a variety of applications there are distinct environmental advantages. Since the quenching being a very rapid cooling process, only a very small amount of mineral crystallization is taking place. Its chemical symbol is “Fe” derived from its Latin name Ferrum. Compositional changes can be readily made to avoid such problems, which are basically of concern only to the producers whose potential product is destroyed. BFS is composed of the non-metallic components removed from iron ore during processing in a blast furnace. For chemical uses, such as a raw material for manufacture of glass or mineral wool insulation and for agricultural applications, the chemical composition is also quite important. Fertilizer. It's only use is to be Thermally Centrifuged into 5 Coal Dust and 1 Tiny Pile of Gold Dust. 2.3 Use of ferrochrome slag products The ferrochrome slag products are chemically very stable. It can be used as fluxing agent in the iron ore sintering process where it replaces lime and limestone. Some leaching of S compounds from uncoated slag does occur. For example, some samples of the air cooled  slag has reported to have a compacted unit weight as high as 1940 kg /cum. 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